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IC Category

Integrated Circuits (ICs)

Integrated circuits are also referred to as ICs, chips, or microchips. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip replaces the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. Integrated circuits has many features such as mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design, which makes the adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. Compared to discrete circuits, integrated circuits have the advantages of low cost and high performance. Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip). The manufacturing process includes fabrication, packaging and chip labeling and manufacture date. They are widely used in all electronic equipment today, including computers, mobile phones, and other digital appliances.

OPA552UAG4 TL074CPWR LTC1045CSW UCC2809DTR-2G4 ISL6527CRZ-T PIC16LF723T-I/SS PIC16LC72T-04/SO MAX6804US37D3+T ADUC842BCP8-5 AT24C512W-10SI-2.7 AT49BV8192AT-12TC TAS5086DBTRG4 ADM1485ARM MAX6881ETE+ TLC354IDG4 OPA177GPG4 PIC16CE624-20I/P OPA2703UA/2K5 AT24C128-10PC-1.8 MCP2515T-I/ST

Connectors

Connectors are electro-mechanical devices for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly. They may join two lengths of flexible copper wire or cable, or connect a wire or cable or optical interface to an electrical terminal. The connectors are characterised by the pinout and physical construction, size, contact resistance, insulation between pins, ruggedness and resistance to vibration, resistance to entry of water or other contaminants, resistance to pressure, reliability, lifetime (number of connect/disconnect operations before failure), and ease of connecting and disconnecting. The types of connectors include terminal block, insulation displacement connector, plug and socket connector, component and device connector, etc. The most used connectors cover 8P8C connectors, USB connectors, power connectors and DC connectors.

ABM18DTKD HMM24DRTF ABM15DRUN 134-10-304-00-000000 RSM24DTAS-S189 72478-2121LF 1990025 337-050-541-804 644472-6 357-018-505-102 HM2S02PE5101N9LF RCA30DTAZ-S664 RBM15DRST-S273 ECM15DSAN DE09P565GTX PEC28SAAN GBM18DRMT-S664 HR25A-9R-16P AMM24DTAT RSM18DTKS

Capacitors

Capacitors (formerly known as condensers) are passive two-terminal electrical components used to store energy in an electric field. All the capacitors at least include two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). There are several different types of capacitors due to the dielectric materials. The common types include ceramic capacitors, supercapacitors, glass and mica capacitors, electrolytic capacitors. Capacitors are widely used in electronic and electrical systems. The typical applications include energy storage, pulsed power and weapons, power conditioning, supression and coupling, motor starters, signal processing and sensing.

381EL152M160A032 380LX152M160A022 MIN02-002DC400J-F 944U221K801ACM ECO-S2WP330BA SR121C222MAATR2 1808GA470JAT1A TMK063CJ030CP-F 12101U821JAT2A 06035U270FAT2A UP050RH1R2M-KEC 2225AC823KAT1A\SB GRM188R60J105KA01D SQCAEA150FAJME EEV-HB1H1R0R ECW-F6824JL B32232A3225K EEE-TK1C331UP TAP475M025BRW TAP476K035CRW

Resistors

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are common in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Practical resistors have a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance; these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications.

RG1608P-2800-C-T5 RG1608P-471-W-T1 RL3720WS-1R0-F RG1608V-151-W-T1 RG1608N-6490-P-T1 ERJ-S03J911V 744C083560JTR RG1608N-4422-W-T5 RG2012P-821-P-T1 EXB-V8V1R0JV OD24GJE RG1005N-1541-W-T1 TL88K47R0 B12J15RE RG2012V-6650-W-T1 20J8K0E 43J400E 4116R-3-181/391LF 745C101101JTR RG3216P-6651-B-T5

Discrete Semiconductor Products

Discrete semiconductor products are electronic components with just one circuit element, either passive (resistor, capacitor, inductor) or active (transistor or vacuum tube), other than integrated circuits. Several discrete semiconductor devices are combined to form a discrete circuit. Such discrete circuits are different from integrated circuits and hybrid circuits, which are built from several circuit elements in one package. The typical discrete semiconductor products include transistors, diodes, TRIACs, LED.

FDMS9600S MJE18004D2 IRF9520NPBF 2SD1858TV2Q DPG20C400PB FDS6961A_F011 T510068004AQ 2EZ19D5 PN3645_D74Z SPW47N60S5 MCC170-16IO1 UNR52AFG0L VUO60-14NO3 1SV262TPH3F MEK95-06DA BAS40-05T-7-F PZM3.3NB1,115 R7204406XXOO IPA60R600CP 1N5248BDO35

Switches

Switches are electrical components that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process.

Circuit Protection

Circuit Protection devices are used to protect wires and connectors from being damaged by excess current flow caused by an over current or short-circuit. Excess current caused excess heat, which causes circuit protection to "open circuit". Fuses, fuse elements, fusible links and circuit breakers are used as circuit protection devices. Circuit protection devices are available in a variety of types, shapes and specific current ratings.

Sensors, Transducers

Sensors are devices that measure a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. The sensors receive and respond to a signal. The sensitvity indicate how much the sensors' output changes when the measured quantity changes. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics. Transducers are devices that convert one type of energy to another. Energy types include (but are not limited to) electrical, mechanical, electromagnetic (including light), chemical, acoustic or thermal energy. For the term transducers commonly implies the use of sensors/detectors, any devices which convert energy can be considered transducers. Transducers are widely used in measuring instruments.

Inductors, Coils, Chokes

Inductors (or reactors or coils) are passive two-terminal electrical components used to store energy in a magnetic field. The ability of inductors to store magnetic energy is measured by inductance, in units of henries. Inductors are one of the basic components used in electronics where current and voltage change with time, due to the ability of inductors to delay and reshape alternating currents. Inductors called chokes are used as parts of filters in power supplies or can be used to block AC signals from passing through a circuit.

Cable Assemblies

Cable assemblies are also known as cable harnesses, wire harnesses, wiring assemblies or wiring looms. Cable assemblies are strings of cables and/or wires which transmit informational signals or operating currents (energy). The cables are bound together by clamps, cable ties, cable lacing, sleeves, electrical tape, conduit, a weave of extruded string, or a combination thereof. They are usually used in automobiles, as well as construction machinery, modern-day cable assemblies provide several advantages over loose wires and cables. For example, many aircraft, automobiles and spacecraft contain many masses of wires which would stretch over several kilometres if fully extended. By binding the many wires and cables into a cable harness, the wires and cables can be better secured against the adverse effects of vibrations, abrasions, and moisture. By constricting the wires into a non-flexing bundle, usage of space is optimized, and the risk of a short is decreased.

Optoelectronics

Optoelectronics are electronic devices that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics. Optoelectronic devices are electrical-to-optical or optical-to-electrical transducers, or instruments that use such devices in their operation. Optoelectronics usually include display modules, fiber optics, lamps, LEDs , laser diodes, infrared emitters, and LED thermal products.

Undefined Category

Relays

Relays are electrically operated switches. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. Several common types include latching relays, reed relays, mercury-wetted relays, polarized relays, machine tool relays, ratchet relays, contactor relays, solid-state relays, solid state contactor relays, Buchholz relays, Forced-guided contacts relays and overload protection relays.

Programmers, Development Systems

Programmers refer to hardware devices that configure programmable non-volatile circuits such as EPROMs, EEPROMs, Flashs, PALs, FPGAs or programmable logic circuits. There are four general types of device programmers: Gang programmers for mass production, development programmers for development and small-series production, pocket programmers for development and field service, and specialized programmers for certain circuit types only, f.i. EPROM programmers. For programming a circuit, programmers are either inserted into a socket (often ZIF) on top of the programmer, or programmers are directly connected by an adapter to the circuit board (In-System Programming). Afterwards the data is transferred into the circuit by applying signals to the connecting pins. Development systems are sets of development tools that allows for the creation of applications for circuits.

Filters

Filters are devices or processes that removes from a signal some unwanted component or feature. Filtering is a class of signal processing, the defining feature of filters being the complete or partial suppression of some aspect of the signal. Filters may be specified by family and bandform. A filter's family is specified by the approximating polynomial used and each leads to certain characteristics of the transfer function of the filter. Here are some common filters: Butterworth filters, Chebyshev filters, Bessel filters, Elliptic filters, Optimum "L" filters, Gaussian filters, Hourglass filters and Raised-cosine filters.

Crystals and Oscillators

Crystal oscillators are electronic oscillator circuits that use the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits designed around them became known as "crystal oscillators." Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. They are widely used for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cellphones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes.

Power Supplies

Power supplies are devices that supply electrical energy to one or more electric loads. They can obtain energy from electrical energy transmission systems, energy storage devices, electromechanical systems and solar power. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Common power supplies types include battery, DC power supply, AC power supply, linear regulated power supply, AC/DC supply, switched-mode power supply, programmable power supply, uninterruptible power supply, high-voltage power supply and voltage multipliers. Power supplies are widely used in computer power supply, welding power supply and AC adapter.

Potentiometers, Variable Resistors

Potentiometers, also known as pots, are three-terminal resistors with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper), they act as variable resistors or rheostats. Potentiometer are constructed with a resistive element formed into an arc of a circle, and a sliding contact (wiper) travelling over that arc. Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt), since the power dissipated in the potentiometer would be comparable to the power in the controlled load. Instead they are used to adjust the level of analog signals (e.g. volume controls on audio equipment), and as control inputs for electronic circuits. Potentiometers are widely used as user controls, and may control a very wide variety of equipment functions. They are widely used in audio control, television, transducers and computation.

RF and RFID

RF (Radio frequency) is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations, although mechanical RF systems do exist (see mechanical filter and RF MEMS). Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag or label, attached to an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. Some RFID tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. The application of bulk reading enables an almost-parallel reading of tags. The RFID tag includes a small RF transmitter and receiver. An RFID reader transmits an encoded radio signal to interrogate the tag. The tag receives the message and responds with its identification information. The RFID system design includes a method of discriminating several tags that might be within the range of the RFID reader. RFID can be used in many applications. A tag can be affixed to any object and used to track and manage inventory, assets, people, etc.

Isolators

Isolators are used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energised for service or maintenance. They are often found in electrical distribution and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance. Isolating switches are commonly fitted to domestic extractor fans when used in bathrooms in the UK. Often the isolation switch is not intended for normal control of the circuit and is only used for isolation.

Boxes, Enclosures, Racks

Electrical enclosures (boxes, racks) are cabinets for electrical or electronic equipment to mount switches, knobs and displays and to prevent electrical shock to equipment users and protect the contents from the environment. Enclosures are the only part of the equipment which is seen by users; in many cases it is designed not only for its utilitarian requirements, but also to be pleasing to the eye. Electrical enclosures are usually made from rigid plastics, metals, particularly steel and aluminum, and natural or processed wood. They may be made for a specific purpose (e.g., the metal, plastic, or wooden box of a particular radio receiver) or to accommodate any equipment to which they are suited.

Sockets for ICs, Transistors

Sockets are a mechanical components that provide mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board (PCB). This allows the CPU to be replaced without soldering. Common sockets have retention clips that apply a constant force, which must be overcome when a device is inserted. For chips with a large number of pins, either zero-insertion force (ZIF) sockets or land grid array (LGA) sockets are used instead.

Hardware, Fasteners, Accessories

Fasteners are hardware devices that mechanically join or affixe two or more objects together. Fasteners can also be used to close a container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope; or they may involve keeping together the sides of an opening of flexible material, attaching a lid to a container, etc. There are also special-purpose closing devices, e.g. a bread clip. Fasteners used in these manners are often temporary, in that they may be fastened and unfastened repeatedly.

Transformers

Transformers are devices that transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—transformers' coils. A wide variety of transformer designs are used for different applications. Important common transformer types include: autotransformers, polyphase transformers, leakage transformers, resonant transformers, audio transformers and instrument transformers. A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers.

Connectors, Interconnects

Connectors are electro-mechanical devices for joining electrical circuits as an interface using a mechanical assembly. They may join two lengths of flexible copper wire or cable, or connect a wire or cable or optical interface to an electrical terminal. The connectors are characterised by the pinout and physical construction, size, contact resistance, insulation between pins, ruggedness and resistance to vibration, resistance to entry of water or other contaminants, resistance to pressure, reliability, lifetime (number of connect/disconnect operations before failure), and ease of connecting and disconnecting. The types of connectors include terminal block, insulation displacement connector, plug and socket connector, component and device connector, etc. The most used connectors cover 8P8C connectors, USB connectors, power connectors and DC connectors.

Tools

Tools are devices that can be used to produce an item or achieve a task, but that is not consumed in the process. Informally the word is also used to describe a procedure or process with a specific purpose. Tools that are used in particular fields or activities may have different designations such as Instrument, Utensil, Implement, Machine, or Apparatus.

Cables, Wires - Management

In electrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents. Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be plated with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tinning is also used to provide lubrication between strands. Tinning was used to help removal of rubber insulation. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords).

Cables, Wires

In electrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents. Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be plated with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tinning is also used to provide lubrication between strands. Tinning was used to help removal of rubber insulation. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords).

Fans, Thermal Management

Heat generated by electronic devices and circuitry must be dissipated to improve reliability and prevent premature failure. Techniques for heat dissipation can include heatsinks and fans for air cooling, and other forms of computer cooling such as liquid cooling. In cases of extreme low environmental temperatures, it may actually be necessary to heat the electronic components to achieve satisfactory operation. Thermal management is widely used in personal computers, soldering and batteries.

ICs, Integrated Circuits, Semiconductors

Integrated circuits are also referred to as ICs, chips, or microchips. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip replaces the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. Integrated circuits has many features such as mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design, which makes the adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. Compared to discrete circuits, integrated circuits have the advantages of low cost and high performance. Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip). The manufacturing process includes fabrication, packaging and chip labeling and manufacture date. They are widely used in all electronic equipment today, including computers, mobile phones, and other digital appliances.

Test Equipment

Electronic test equipment (sometimes called "testgear" or "bench top") is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic Devices Under Test (DUTs). In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced and repaired. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems. The types of basic measurement of voltages, currents, and components in the circuit include voltmeters, ohmmeters, ammeters, multimeters, power supplies, signal generators, digital pattern generators, pulse and generators.

Over Voltage, Current, Temperature Devices

When a circuit must be protected from overvoltage and there are failure modes in the power supply that can produce such overvoltages, the circuit may be protected by a device commonly called a crowbar circuit. When this device detects an overvoltage it causes a short circuit between the power supply and its return. This will cause both an immediate drop in voltage (protecting the device) and an instantaneous high current which is expected to open a current sensitive device (such as a fuse or circuit breaker). This device is called a crowbar as it is likened to dropping an actual crowbar across a set of bus bars (exposed electrical conductors).

Thermal Management

Heat generated by electronic devices and circuitry must be dissipated to improve reliability and prevent premature failure. Techniques for heat dissipation can include heatsinks and fans for air cooling, and other forms of computer cooling such as liquid cooling. In cases of extreme low environmental temperatures, it may actually be necessary to heat the electronic components to achieve satisfactory operation. Thermal management is widely used in personal computers, soldering and batteries.

Soldering, Desoldering, Rework Products

Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece. Soldering differs from welding in that the workpieces are melted. In electronics, desoldering is the removal of solder and components from a circuit for troubleshooting, for repair purposes, component replacement, and to salvage components. Electronic components are often mounted on a circuit board, and it is usually desirable to avoid damaging the circuit board, surrounding components, and the component being removed. Rework (or re-work) is the term for the refinishing operation or repair of an electronic printed circuit board assembly(PCBA). Mass processing techniques are not applicable to single device repair and/or replacement, so specialized techniques are required to replace defective components - most notably area array packages such as Ball grid array(BGA) devices.

Fans

Heat generated by electronic devices and circuitry must be dissipated to improve reliability and prevent premature failure. Techniques for heat dissipation can include heatsinks and fans for air cooling, and other forms of computer cooling such as liquid cooling. In cases of extreme low environmental temperatures, it may actually be necessary to heat the electronic components to achieve satisfactory operation. Thermal management is widely used in personal computers, soldering and batteries.

Audio Products

Audio products include speakers, power amplifiers, DSP, processors & accessories, switching & distribution, mixers & processors, voiceLift microphone, IP intercom, accessories and cables & adapters.

Battery Assemblies, Packs

After the electrical requirements have been determined, the designing of the battery pack can begin. The areas that need to be considered in battery pack design include: battery pack configuration, protective devices, connectors, packaging and labeling. The battery pack configuration is the way the cell configurations are assembled together. The “flat” battery pack configuration is the most common because of its ease of assembly. Next are the “square” and then the “nested” battery pack configurations. The “staggered” configurations are not common and more difficult to assemble, but will sometimes work for battery packs with restrictions in depth. The configuration of a battery pack is almost limitless, yet designing a battery pack that is considered “non-typical” is usually not cost effective. A “non-typical” battery pack often incorporates a mixture of cell configurations as well as locating cells at various directions to one another that would inhibit the ease of assembly.

Industrial Controls, Meters

Meters (electronics) are instruments for measuring quantities in electronic circuits. Common meters include multimeters, voltmeters, ammeters, ohmmeters, wattmeters, capacitance meters, LCR meters, electrometers, clamp meters, VU meters, EMF meters, SWR meters and sound level meters, etc.

Sensors, Sensor Evaluation Kits

Sensors are devices that measure a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. The sensors receive and respond to a signal. The sensitvity indicate how much the sensors' output changes when the measured quantity changes. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics.

Batteries

Electrical batteries are more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. There are many general types of electrochemical cells, according to chemical processes applied and design chosen. The variation includes galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles.

Switches, Encoders

Switches are electrical components that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch. Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process. Encoders are devices, circuits, transducers, software programs, algorithms that converts information from one format or code to another, for the purposes of standardization, speed, secrecy, security, or saving space by shrinking size.

Kits

Electronic kits are packages of electrical components used to build an electronic device. Generally, kits are composed of electronic components, a circuit diagram (schematic), assembly instructions and often a printed circuit board (PCB) or another type of prototyping board. There are 2 distinct types of kit, those that will construct a single project, and those that can construct a range of projects. The first type of kits, those for the construction of a single device, normally use a PCB on which components are soldered. They normally come with extended documentation describing which component goes where into the PCB. The latter are primarily aimed at children, and include a solderless construction board of some type, such as: (1)Components mounted in plastic blocks with side contacts, that are held together in a base, eg Denshi blocks; (2)Springs on a card board, the springs trap wire leads or component leads, such as Philips EE electronic experiment kits. These are a cheap and flexible option; (3)Professional type prototyping boards, (breadboards) into which component leads are inserted, following documentation of the "kit".

Prototyping Products

In electronics, prototyping means building an actual circuit to a theoretical design to verify that it works, and to provide a physical platform for debugging it if it does not. The prototype is often constructed using techniques such as wire wrap or using veroboard or breadboard, that create an electrically correct circuit, but one that is not physically identical to the final product. Open-source tools exist to document electronic prototypes (especially the breadboard-based ones) and move forward toward production such as Fritzing and Arduino.

Static Control, Clean Room Products

Electrostatic-sensitive device (often abbreviated ESD) is any component (primarily electrical) which can be damaged by common static charges which build up on people, tools, and other non-conductors or semiconductors. ESD commonly also stands for electrostatic discharge. Common electrostatic-sensitive devices include: (1)MOSFET transistors, used to make integrated circuits (ICs); (2)CMOS ICs (chips), integrated circuits built with MOSFETs. Examples are computer CPUs, graphics ICs; (3)Computer cards; (4)TTL chips; (5)Laser diodes; (6)Blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs); (7)High precision resistors.

Test and Work Bench Equipment

Electronic test equipment (sometimes called "testgear" or "bench top") is used to create signals and capture responses from electronic Devices Under Test (DUTs). In this way, the proper operation of the DUT can be proven or faults in the device can be traced and repaired. Use of electronic test equipment is essential to any serious work on electronics systems. Practical electronics engineering and assembly requires the use of many different kinds of electronic test equipment ranging from the very simple and inexpensive (such as a test light consisting of just a light bulb and a test lead) to extremely complex and sophisticated such as Automatic Test Equipment. ATE often includes many of these instruments in real and simulated forms.

Printers and Accessories

Printers are peripherals which produce a text and/or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most new printers, a USB cable to a computer which serves as a document source. Some printers, commonly known as network printers, have built-in network interfaces, typically wireless and/or Ethernet based, and can serve as a hard copy device for any user on the network. Individual printers are often designed to support both local and network connected users at the same time. In addition, a few modern printers can directly interface to electronic media such as memory cards, or to image capture devices such as digital cameras, scanners; some printers are combined with a scanners and/or fax machines in a single unit, and can function as photocopiers. Printers that include non-printing features are sometimes called multifunction printers (MFP), multi-function devices (MFD), or all-in-one (AIO) printers. Most MFPs include printing, scanning, and copying among their many features.

Line Protection, Backups

Backups or the processes of backing up are making copies of data which may be used to restore the original after a data loss event. Backups have two distinct purposes. The primary purpose is to recover data after its loss, be it by data deletion or corruption. Data loss is a very common experience of computer users. 67% of Internet users have suffered serious data loss.[2] The secondary purpose of backups is to recover data from an earlier time, according to a user-defined data retention policy, typically configured within a backup application for how long copies of data are required.

Computer and Video Accessories

Computer accessories include keyboards, mice, printers, scanners, webcams, speakers, batteries, networking, gaming, external hard drives and monitors. Video accessories include headphones, universal remotes, HDMI cables, HDTV mounts, antennas, and surge Protectors.

Memory Cards, Modules

Memory cards or flash card are electronic flash memory data storage devices used for storing digital information. They are commonly used in many electronic devices, including digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers, MP3 players, and video game consoles. They are small, re-recordable, and able to retain data without power.

Diodes, Rectifiers

Diodes are two-terminal electronic components with a nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. Semiconductor diodes, the most common type today, are crystalline pieces of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Semiconductor diodes have nonlinear electrical characteristics, which can be tailored by varying the construction of their P–N junction. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform many different functions. Types of semiconductor diodes include avalanche diodes, crystal diodes, constant current diodes, Esaki or tunnel diodes, gunn diodes, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, thermal diodes, photodiodes, point-contact diodes, PIN diodes, schottky diodes, super barrier diodes, gold-doped diodes, transient voltage suppression diodes (TVS), varicap or varactor diodes and zener diodes. Rectifiers are electrical devices that convert alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC) which flows in only one direction. Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power.

Hardware, Fasteners

Fasteners are hardware devices that mechanically join or affixe two or more objects together. Fasteners can also be used to close a container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope; or they may involve keeping together the sides of an opening of flexible material, attaching a lid to a container, etc. There are also special-purpose closing devices, e.g. a bread clip. Fasteners used in these manners are often temporary, in that they may be fastened and unfastened repeatedly.

Development, Programming

Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in one or more programming languages. The purpose of programming is to create a program that performs specific operations or exhibits a certain desired behavior. The process of writing source code often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic.

Wire Management

Wire management is a vital component to networking systems and their long term functionality, it speeds up troubleshooting, and makes upgrades easy. Advanced wire management like cable ties is used to group cables to and from a server for fast identification. This saves precious time when trying to find a problem component.

Inductors, Coils, Filters

Inductors (or reactors or coils) are passive two-terminal electrical components used to store energy in a magnetic field. The ability of inductors to store magnetic energy is measured by inductance, in units of henries. Inductors are one of the basic components used in electronics where current and voltage change with time, due to the ability of inductors to delay and reshape alternating currents. Inductors called chokes are used as parts of filters in power supplies or can be used to block AC signals from passing through a circuit.

Motors, Solenoids, Driver Boards/Modules

Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is done by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo; some electric motors can also be used as generators, for example, a traction motor on a vehicle may perform both tasks. Electric motors and generators are commonly referred to as electric machines. Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct current, e.g., a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle, or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid or inverter. Solenoids are coils wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term solenoid refers to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it. Solenoids are important because they can create controlled magnetic fields and can be used as electromagnets. The term solenoid refers specifically to a magnet designed to produce a uniform magnetic field in a volume of space (where some experiment might be carried out).

Relays, I/O Modules

Relays are electrically operated switches. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. Several common types include latching relays, reed relays, mercury-wetted relays, polarized relays, machine tool relays, ratchet relays, contactor relays, solid-state relays, solid state contactor relays, Buchholz relays, Forced-guided contacts relays and overload protection relays.

Static Control, ESD, Clean Room Products

Electrostatic-sensitive device (often abbreviated ESD) is any component (primarily electrical) which can be damaged by common static charges which build up on people, tools, and other non-conductors or semiconductors. ESD commonly also stands for electrostatic discharge. Common electrostatic-sensitive devices include: (1)MOSFET transistors, used to make integrated circuits (ICs); (2)CMOS ICs (chips), integrated circuits built with MOSFETs. Examples are computer CPUs, graphics ICs; (3)Computer cards; (4)TTL chips; (5)Laser diodes; (6)Blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs); (7)High precision resistors.

Transistors, FETs, IGBTs

Transistors are semiconductor devices used to amplify and switch electronic signals and power. They are composed of a semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. Transistors are the key active components in practically all modern electronics. Transistors are categorized by: (1)Semiconductor material: graphene, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, silicon carbide, etc; (2)Structure: BJT, JFET, IGFET (MOSFET), IGBT, "other types" ; (3)Polarity: NPN, PNP (BJTs); N-channel, P-channel (FETs) ; (4)Maximum power rating: low, medium, high; (5)Maximum operating frequency: low, medium, high, radio frequency (RF), microwave (The maximum effective frequency of a transistor is denoted by the term fT, an abbreviation for "frequency of transition". The frequency of transition is the frequency at which the transistor yields unity gain); (6)Application: switch, general purpose, audio, high voltage, super-beta, matched pair; (7)Physical packaging: through hole metal, through hole plastic, surface mount, ball grid array, power modules; (8)Amplification factor hfe (transistor beta).

Cable, Wire

In electrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents. Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be plated with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tinning is also used to provide lubrication between strands. Tinning was used to help removal of rubber insulation. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords).

Tapes, Adhesives

Adhesive, or glues, are mixtures in a liquid or semi-liquid state that adheres or bonds items together. Adhesives may come from either natural or synthetic sources. The types of materials that can be bonded are vast but they are especially useful for bonding thin materials. Adhesives cure (harden) by either evaporating a solvent or by chemical reactions that occur between two or more constituents. Adhesives are advantageous for joining thin or dissimilar materials, minimizing weight, and when a vibration dampening joint is needed. A disadvantage to adhesives is that they do not form an instantaneous joint, unlike most other joining processes, because the adhesive needs time to cure.

Cable, Cable Assembly, Wire

In electrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents. Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be plated with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tinning is also used to provide lubrication between strands. Tinning was used to help removal of rubber insulation. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords).

Optoelectronics, LEDs, LCDs, Lasers, Displays

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light sources. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances. Liquid crystal display (LCDs) are flat panel displays, electronic visual displays, video displays that use the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). They are used in a wide range of applications, including computer monitors, television, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, signage, etc. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. LCDs have displaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications.

ICs, Modules, Accessories for RF, RFID

Modules are self-contained assemblies of electronic components and circuitry, such as a stage in a computer, that is installed as a unit. Memory modules are broad terms used to refer to a series of dynamic random access memory integrated circuits modules mounted on a printed circuit board and designed for use in personal computers, workstations and servers. They can be used to these specific types of memory module: dual in-line package memory, SIPP memory, SIMM, DIMM.

Card Readers

Card readers are data input devices that read data from a card-shaped storage medium. Historically, paper or cardboard punched cards were used throughout the first several decades of the computer industry to store information and write programs for computer system, and these were read by punched card readers. More modern card readers are electronic devices that use plastic cards imprinted with barcodes, magnetic strips, computer chips or other storage medium. Memory card readers are devices used for communication with a smart card or a memory card. Magnetic card readers are devices used to read magnetic stripe cards, such as credit cards. Business card readers are devices used to scan and electronically save printed business cards.

Breadboards, PC Boards, Card Racks

Breadboards (protoboard) are construction bases for a one-of-a-kind electronic circuit, a prototype. In modern times the term is commonly used to refer to a particular type of breadboard, the solderless breadboard (plugboard). Printed circuit boards, or PCBs, are used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed circuit assembly (PCA), also known as a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). Printed circuit boards are used in virtually all but the simplest commercially-produced electronic devices.

Over Current Circuit Protection

When a circuit must be protected from overvoltage and there are failure modes in the power supply that can produce such overvoltages, the circuit may be protected by a device commonly called a crowbar circuit. When this device detects an overvoltage it causes a short circuit between the power supply and its return. This will cause both an immediate drop in voltage (protecting the device) and an instantaneous high current which is expected to open a current sensitive device (such as a fuse or circuit breaker). This device is called a crowbar as it is likened to dropping an actual crowbar across a set of bus bars (exposed electrical conductors).

Motors, Solenoids

Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is done by generators such as an alternator or a dynamo; some electric motors can also be used as generators, for example, a traction motor on a vehicle may perform both tasks. Electric motors and generators are commonly referred to as electric machines. Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct current, e.g., a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle, or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid or inverter. Solenoids are coils wound into a tightly packed helix. In physics, the term solenoid refers to a long, thin loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it. Solenoids are important because they can create controlled magnetic fields and can be used as electromagnets. The term solenoid refers specifically to a magnet designed to produce a uniform magnetic field in a volume of space (where some experiment might be carried out).

Fiber Optics

Fiber optics is a technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. Fiber optics has several advantages over traditional metal communications lines: (1)Fiber optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables. This means that they can carry more data; (2)Fiber optic cables are less susceptible than metal cables to interference; (3)Fiber optic cables are much thinner and lighter than metal wires. Data can be transmitted digitally (the natural form for computer data) rather than analogically. The main disadvantage of fiber optics is that the cables are expensive to install. In addition, they are more fragile than wire and are difficult to splice. Fiber optics is a particularly popular technology for local-area networks. In addition, telephone companies are steadily replacing traditional telephone lines with fiber optic cables. In the future, almost all communications will employ fiber optics.

Optical Inspection Equipment

Automated optical inspection (AOI) is an automated visual inspection of a wide range of products, such as printed circuit boards (PCBs), LCDs, transistors, automotive parts, lids and labels on product packages or agricultural products (seed corn or fruits). In case of PCB-inspection, a camera autonomously scans the device under test (DUT) for variety of surface feature defects such as scratches and stains, open circuits, short circuits, thinning of the solder as well as missing components, incorrect components, and incorrectly placed components. The optical inspection equipment includes microscopes, comparators and interferometers.

Over Voltage Circuit Protection

When a circuit must be protected from overvoltage and there are failure modes in the power supply that can produce such overvoltages, the circuit may be protected by a device commonly called a crowbar circuit. When this device detects an overvoltage it causes a short circuit between the power supply and its return. This will cause both an immediate drop in voltage (protecting the device) and an instantaneous high current which is expected to open a current sensitive device (such as a fuse or circuit breaker). This device is called a crowbar as it is likened to dropping an actual crowbar across a set of bus bars (exposed electrical conductors).

Zspecial

CCDs, Computer Accessories

Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are a devices for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins. The CCD is a major technology for digital imaging. In a CCD image sensor, reverse-biased p–n junctions (essentially photodiodes) are used to absorb photons and produce charges representing sensed pixels; the CCD is used to read out these charges.

Solder, Desoldering Equipment

Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece. Soldering differs from welding in that the workpieces are melted. In electronics, desoldering is the removal of solder and components from a circuit for troubleshooting, for repair purposes, component replacement, and to salvage components. Electronic components are often mounted on a circuit board, and it is usually desirable to avoid damaging the circuit board, surrounding components, and the component being removed.

Power Supplies and Wall Transformers

Power supplies are devices that supply electrical energy to one or more electric loads. They can obtain energy from electrical energy transmission systems, energy storage devices, electromechanical systems and solar power. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Common power supplies types include battery, DC power supply, AC power supply, linear regulated power supply, AC/DC supply, switched-mode power supply, programmable power supply, uninterruptible power supply, high-voltage power supply and voltage multipliers. Power supplies are widely used in computer power supply, welding power supply and AC adapter. Wall Transformers are not regulated unless otherwise stated. They provide a specified voltage at a specified load. If the load is lower than specified, the voltage will be higher then specified. With a higher load, the voltage will drop below that specified. For example, a 12 volt 500 ma. wall transformer may read 20 volts with no load or 9 Volts with a 600 ma. load.

Crystals, Oscillators

Crystal oscillators are electronic oscillator circuits that use the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits designed around them became known as "crystal oscillators." Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. They are widely used for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cellphones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes.

Batteries, Chargers, Holders

Electrical batteries are more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. There are many general types of electrochemical cells, according to chemical processes applied and design chosen. The variation includes galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles.

Printers, Paper, Labels

Printers are peripherals which produce a text and/or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most new printers, a USB cable to a computer which serves as a document source. Some printers, commonly known as network printers, have built-in network interfaces, typically wireless and/or Ethernet based, and can serve as a hard copy device for any user on the network. Individual printers are often designed to support both local and network connected users at the same time. In addition, a few modern printers can directly interface to electronic media such as memory cards, or to image capture devices such as digital cameras, scanners; some printers are combined with a scanners and/or fax machines in a single unit, and can function as photocopiers. Printers that include non-printing features are sometimes called multifunction printers (MFP), multi-function devices (MFD), or all-in-one (AIO) printers. Most MFPs include printing, scanning, and copying among their many features.

Thyristors

Thyristors are solid-state semiconductor devices with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed). Thyristors are solid-state semiconductor devices with four layers of alternating N and P-type material. They act as bistable switches, conducting when their gate receives a current trigger, and continue to conduct while they are forward biased (that is, while the voltage across the device is not reversed).

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