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VOLTAGE_REFERENCE

Published:2009-7-1 2:08:00 Author:May

VOLTAGE_REFERENCE
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Thermally_based_NiCad_charger

Published:2009-7-24 5:10:00 Author:Jessie

Thermally_based_NiCad_charger
Thermally_based_NiCad_charger

Figure 8-15 shows a simple thermally based charging circuit for NiCad batteries.Figure 8-16 shows the charge characteristics.Thermocouples sense both cell andambient temperature simultaneously. A1 provides the amplification necessary for microvolt-level thermocouple signals. The 10-kΩ trimpot is set to introduceenough input-off set so that the A1 output swmgs positive turning on thetransistor. Figure 8-17 shows a simple, lnexpenslve way to construct low-resistance shunts usmg a small length of wlre or a PC trace.The type and length of wire determines the shunt resistance (which can be altered to produce the desiredcharging characteristics). Figure 8-17 also shows resistance-versus-len gth characteristics for varlous wire sizes, as well as the details for both wlre and PC shunts.In both cases (PC or wire) the shunt should have separate connections for sensing (Kelvin style) SO that high current does not affect the readings.LINEARTECHNOLOGY, APPLICATION NOTE 37.P.4.   (View)

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MULTIPLEXED_CLOCK_DlSPLAY

Published:2009-7-1 2:08:00 Author:May

MULTIPLEXED_CLOCK_DlSPLAY
Multiplexed display suitable for LED readouts is provided by circuit using TTL counters to count 60-Hz Iine.When count reaches 10 o'clock, flip-flop M is set on evely cycle. Gate G3 then detects when time goes to 13 o'clock, and clears shift register.Carry flip-flop remains set, so 1 is loaded into hours digit to accomplish transition from 12:59:59 to 1:00:00. Seven-segment decoder driver Iooks at shift register output and drives segment lines of LED Leading hours digit is blanked,using RBI input on 9317.-G.Smith,Novel clock Circuit Provides Multiplexed Display,EDN Magazine.Sept 1,1972,p 50-51.   (View)

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IC_battery_backup_rechargeable_battery

Published:2009-7-24 5:10:00 Author:Jessie

IC_battery_backup_rechargeable_battery
This circuit is similar to that of Fig.9-19,except that a trickle charge is applied to a rechargeable battery(through the diode and resistor).   (View)

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NONINVERTING_BIPOLAR_CURRENT_SOURCE

Published:2009-7-1 2:07:00 Author:May

NONINVERTING_BIPOLAR_CURRENT_SOURCE
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High_resolution_single_supply_bridge_amplifier

Published:2009-7-24 5:10:00 Author:Jessie

High_resolution_single_supply_bridge_amplifier
Figure 4-6 shows a high-resolution version of the Fig, 4-5 circuit. The Fig. 4-6 circuit uses a bipolar positive-to-negative converter, which has much lower output impedance. The biasing used permits 8 V to appear across the bridge, requiring the 100-mA capability of the LT1054 to sink about 24 mA. This increased drive results in a more favorable transducer-gain per slope, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. LINEAR TECHNOLOGY, APPLICATION NOTE 43, P. 7.   (View)

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LOW_VOLTAGE_ADJUSTABLE_REFERENCE_SUPPLY

Published:2009-7-1 2:07:00 Author:May

LOW_VOLTAGE_ADJUSTABLE_REFERENCE_SUPPLY
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IC_battery_backup_lithium_battery

Published:2009-7-24 5:09:00 Author:Jessie

IC_battery_backup_lithium_battery
The circuit of Fig.9-19A uses single ICL7873 to replace a typical discrete-component battery-backup system, such as shown in Fig. 9-19B.   (View)

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BILATERAL_CURRENT_SOURCE_1

Published:2009-7-1 2:05:00 Author:May

BILATERAL_CURRENT_SOURCE_1
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Single_supply_bridge_amplifier_with_common_mode_suppression

Published:2009-7-24 5:09:00 Author:Jessie

Single_supply_bridge_amplifier_with_common_mode_suppression
Figure 4-5 shows a circuit that is similar to that of Fig. 4-4, except that a single power supply is required. A2 biases the LTC1044 positive-to-negative converter. The LTC1044 output pulls the bridge output negative, causing the Al input to balance at 0 V. This local loop permits a single-ended amplifier (A2) to extract the bridge output signal. The 100-k℃/033-μF RC filter minimizes noise. The A2 gain is set to provide the desired output scale factor. Because bridge drive is taken from the LT1034 reference, the A2 output is not affected by supply shifts. The LT1034 output is available for ratio operation. Although the supply is 5 V, the transducer sees only 2.4 V of drive. This reduced drive results in lower transducer outputs for a given measurement value, effectively magnifying amplifier offset-drift terms. The limit on the available bridge drive is set by the CMOS LTC1044 output impedance. LINEAR TECHNOLOGY, APPLICATION NOTE 43, P. 7.   (View)

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LINEAR_VARIABLE_DIFFERENTIAL_TRANSFORMER_SIGNAL_CONDITIONER

Published:2009-7-1 2:05:00 Author:May

LINEAR_VARIABLE_DIFFERENTIAL_TRANSFORMER_SIGNAL_CONDITIONER
A1 and its associated components furnish an amplitude stable she wave source. A1's positive feedback path is a Wein bridge, tuned for 1.5 kHz, Q1, the LT1004 reference, and additional components in Al's negative loop unity-gain stabilize the amplifier. A1's output an amplitude stable sine wave, drives the LVDT. C1 detects zero crossings and feeds the LTC1043 clock pin. A speed-up network at C1's input compensates LVDT phase shift, synchronizing the LTC1043's clock to the transformer's output zero crossings. The LTC1043 alternately connects each end of the transformer to ground, resulting in positive half-wave rectification at pins 7 and 14. These points are summed at a low-pass filter which feeds A2. A2 furnishes gain scaling and the circuit's output.The LTC1043's synchronized clocking means the information presented to the low-pass filter is amplitude and phase sensitive. The circuit output indicates how far the core is from center and on which side. To calibrate this circuit, center the LVDT core in the transformer and adjust the phase trim for 0 V output. Next, move the core to either extreme position and set the gain trim for 2.50 V output.   (View)

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PRECISION_VOLTAGE_TO_FREQUENCY_CONVERTER

Published:2009-7-1 2:05:00 Author:May

PRECISION_VOLTAGE_TO_FREQUENCY_CONVERTER
PRECISION_VOLTAGE_TO_FREQUENCY_CONVERTER

In this circuit, integration is performed by using a conventional operational amplifier and feedback capacitor, CF. When the integrator's output crosses the nominal thresh-old level at pin 6 of the LM131, the timing cycle is initiated. The average current fed into the op amp's summing point (pin 2) is i × (1.1 RtCt) × fwhich is perfectly balanced with -VIN/RIN. In this circuit, the voltage offset of the LM131 input comparator does not affect the offset or accuracy of the V-to-F converter as it does in the stand-alone V-to-F converter, nor does the LM131 bias current or offset current. Instead, the offset voltage and offset current of the operational amplifier are the only limits on how small the signal can be accurately converted.   (View)

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CIRCULAR_LED_ARRAY

Published:2009-7-1 2:04:00 Author:May

CIRCULAR_LED_ARRAY
Arrangement of 60 LEDs sequencing in outer ring to indicate seconds and minutes, combined with 12 in inner ring to indicate hours, is driven by Motorola MC14566 CMOS industrial time-base generator.Time reference is 16.384-kHz crystal oscillator consisting of two NOR gates and Statek crystal.Reference frequency is divided by 214 in U2 to give 1-s pulse rate for driving accumulators U3A-U5B. Maximum error is 1 s per month. U3 counts seconds, U4 minutes, and U5 hours.Multiplexing is required because same set of 60 LEDs serves for minutes and seconds. Fast and slow touch pads eliminate need for switches when setting time. Single 12-V nicad battery provides backup for AC line failure.-A. Mou-ton, The LED Circular Timepiece, Motorola, Phoenix, AZ, 1975. EB-41.   (View)

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QUAD_op_AMP_GENERATES_FOUR_DIFFERENT_SYNCHRONIZED_WAVEFORMS_SIMULTANEOUSLY

Published:2009-7-1 2:03:00 Author:May

QUAD_op_AMP_GENERATES_FOUR_DIFFERENT_SYNCHRONIZED_WAVEFORMS_SIMULTANEOUSLY
A quad op amp can simultaneously generate four synchronized waveforms. The two comparators (A1 and A3) produce square and pulse waves, while the two integrators (A2 and A4) give triangular and sawtooth waves. Resistor R1 sets the duty cycle and the frequency, along with resistors R and capacitors C.   (View)

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PROGRAMMABLE_VOLTAGE_SOURCE_1

Published:2009-7-1 2:02:00 Author:May

PROGRAMMABLE_VOLTAGE_SOURCE_1
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INEXPENSIVE_FREQUENCY_COUNTER_TACHO_METER

Published:2009-7-1 2:02:00 Author:May

INEXPENSIVE_FREQUENCY_COUNTER_TACHO_METER
Circuit NotesThis circuit uses the low power ICM7555(CMOS 555)to generate the gating,STORE and RESET signals,To provide the gating stgnal,the timer IS configured as an astable multivibrator. The system is calibrated by using a 5 M potentiometer for Ra as a coarse control and a 1 jk potentiometer for Re as a fine control.CD40106B's are used as a monostable multivibrator and reset time delay.   (View)

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0_V_TO_20_V_POWER_REFERENCE

Published:2009-7-1 2:01:00 Author:May

0_V_TO_20_V_POWER_REFERENCE
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Adjustable_dc_dc_step_up_converter15_A

Published:2009-7-25 1:15:00 Author:Jessie

Adjustable_dc_dc_step_up_converter15_A
This circuit shows an LAS-6350/6450 used as a step-up converter with an adjustable output.   (View)

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1_A_dc_dc_step_down_converter_

Published:2009-7-25 0:27:00 Author:Jessie

1_A_dc_dc_step_down_converter_
1_A_dc_dc_step_down_converter_
1_A_dc_dc_step_down_converter_
1_A_dc_dc_step_down_converter_
1_A_dc_dc_step_down_converter_
1_A_dc_dc_step_down_converter_

The SLM switching-regulator ICs contain most elements necessary for converter operation, as shown in Fig. 4-2C. Figure 4-2B shows the output voltage and characteristics for various part numbers. Figure 4-2D shows the absolute maximum ratings. Simply add a choke, catch diode, and two capacitors to the IC for a complete converter.   (View)

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100_MHz_CONVERTER

Published:2009-7-1 2:01:00 Author:May

100_MHz_CONVERTER
The 2N4416 JFET will provide noise figures of less than 3 dB and power gain of greater than 20 dB. The JFET's outstanding low crossmodulation and low intermodulation distortion provides an ideal characteristic for an input stage. The output feeds into an LM171 used as a balanced mixer. This configuration greatly reduces local oscillator radiation both into the antenna and into the if strip and also reduces rf signal feedthrough.   (View)

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